At the Twilight of Jewish Power

For Alexander Schmorell (on the left), the dignity of every human being was sacred. Hans Scholl (on the right) was also a founding member of the White Rose resistance group and was executed in the same year as St. Alexander

This composition shows that besides an anti-Sergianist bent, there was also an anti-Semitic one among some members of the ROCOR.

From the Editor

An address from 2010 by Bishop Agapit of Stuttgart (†2020) and Archpriest Nikolai Artemov, Secretary to the ROCOR Diocese of Germany, states a need for “full methodological liberty” and that “without a new word on her own history, Russia will suffocate.”[1]ROCOR Studies. URL: The history of the Russian Church Abroad is part of that of Russia. The same problems concerning the study of Russian history apply to studying the history of the ROCOR. Studying history is impossible without the totality of sources with all their contradictions.

From the 1920s through the early 2000s, the study of the history of the Russian Church Abroad was supplanted by a polemical defense of its position. The process of restoring communion in the Russian Church, which began with the accession of Metropolitan Laurus to the helm of the ROCOR in 2001, included two scholarly conferences during which representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church and the ROCOR had to enter into a different understanding of their historical perspective (“place themselves in each other’s shoes”).

Our Web site, Historical Studies of the Russian Church Abroad, continues this historical work in the lead-up to the celebration of church unity in May 2007. An important part of this work is the publication of historically significant documents.

The present pamphlet appeared in Belgrade, undated, in the series Sovremennaia bibliotechka (Series B, No. 6), under the name of Yu. Grabbe. In that it mentions Metropolitan Sergii’s election as Patriarch, we must regard September 8, 1943 as a terminus post quem for its publication. We could locate an original copy of the pamphlet in the Czech National Library in Prague; this confirms the authenticity of the photocopy submitted by Archpriest Victor Potapov to the ROCOR Council of Bishops in 1986.[2]cf.: Mikhail Shkarovskii. “The Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia and the Holocaust.” ROCOR Studies. URL: … Continue reading The brochure may well have been intended for distribution among Soviet prisoners of war. Boris Ravdin, a researcher of the Russian émigré press during World War II, draws attention to the similarity between this series and another one of brochures published in Czechoslovakia by Russian National Socialists from Germany, titled Biblioteka rossiiskogo natsionalnogo i sotsialnogo dvizheniia [Library of the Russian National Socialist Movement].[3]Boris Ravdin. “Predvaritelʹnyi spisok russkoi religioznoi literatury, izdannoi na okkupirovannykh territoriiakh SSSR, v Germanii i nekotorykh sopredelʹnykh evropeiskikh stranakh v 1941–1945 … Continue reading

“Without humiliation, there is no fascism.” After the end of World War I, many Russian White emigrants and German National Socialists became natural allies. For those in a state of psychological trauma, it was much easier to absolve themselves of responsibility by blaming the downfall of the Empire on others: “the Jews,” “the Bolsheviks,” “the Entente,” than to set about the painful process of examining the social, political, and economic contradictions that led to revolutions in both of these empires.[4]Michael Kellogg. The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. p. 77. In this way, the worldview of Count Yurii Pavlovich Grabbe (subsequently Protopresbyter and Bishop Gregory), the office manager of the chancery of the ROCOR Synod of Bishops from 1931 through 1986, was perfectly in accord with the attitude of many in the Russia émigré milieu. Igor Troianov, who lived in Belgrade from 1931–1944, recollected that “[…] the mood [there] was very nationalistic. I would say, pro-German. Not only in the Church but also in the émigré community.”[5]“‘People Often Do Not Talk About What’s Important, but Rather about Their Grievances and Frustrations’”. ROCOR Studies. URL: … Continue reading

It remains inexplicable why, even while writing after the end of the Battle of Kursk, in August 1943, with the defeat of the German Wehrmacht, the author still expresses his unshakable confidence in the victory of the Third Reich. An illustration of the polemical attitude to history I wrote about above is that in the appendix to his review of D. Pospelovskii’s book,[6]The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime, 1917–1982. Crestwood, NY, 1984. Bishop Gregory cites a 1941 pro-German article by Archim. John Shakhovskii, “Blizok chas” [“The hour is near”].[7]Novoe slovo [New Word]. No. 27 (356). June 29, 1941. Berlin. Quoted in: Bp. Grigorii [Gregory] Grabbe. K istorii russkikh tserkovnykh razdelenii zagranitsei [On the History of the Divisions of the … Continue reading, but nowhere does he mention this in his pro-Nazi writings from World War II.[8]Apart from the present brochure, another one is known: Pod šestokrakom zvezdom: judaizam i slobodno-zidarstvo u prošlosti i sadašnjosti. Belgrade in 1943 by Dimitrije Ljotić. Source: The Russian … Continue reading

Why publish this brochure by Yurii Pavlovich Grabbe? For several reasons, but not least because the ideologized approach to history offered him continues to influence our understanding of the history that we are living through today, and also because this text gives a sense of the historical climate in which, in the very same year of 1943, another member of the ROCOR – Alexander Gugovich Schmorell – made a very different choice of his own, one that would lead him to sainthood.

Protodeacon Andrei Psarev
May 29, 2023


History does not know a longer or more firm cabal than the conspiracy of Jewry, which strives to attain world domination.

This is not merely a cabal of a separate and power-hungry group of people, but the essence of the entire religion of a whole people. Outside of this [context], the cabal of Judaism ceases to be itself; it either dissolves amidst other nations, or it turns into lifeless Karaitism.

The longevity of the cabal gives an advantage to those who lead it at a given moment. Generation after generation gains in experience; other nations, for whom the fight with Judaism is no more than an episode in history, do not comprehend this. On the other hand, this very longevity is the weakness of the Jews.

In any fight, the moment of greatest strength is that of surprise. The Jews had their greatest successes specifically when their victims did not suspect the cabal. As soon as the cabal was revealed, they were subject to great defeats, most often general exile from the country threatened by them.

The longevity of the Jewish cabal allows current state leaders to study their enemy in the long view of history, to learn his strengths and his weaknesses. Unfortunately, they still have not done this, and do not accord Judaism the significance it truly has. The first person in government, on the world scale, to begin his work with the study of the Jewish question is Adolf Hitler. He delved deeply into the history of Judaism and the character of the Jewish nation, seeing, through this, its weak facets. It is for this reason that he is such a dangerous enemy to Jewry. His global merit is the fact that, upon acquainting himself with the Jewish cabal, he was not squashed by a feeling of horror and helplessness; rather, he raised the flag of war in the very same moment when Jewry was already at the very brink of its final victory.

This merit is all the greater considering how learning about the Jewish cabal very often brings about a feeling of helplessness in people. Judaism is imagined by people to be some sort of many-headed, unconquerable dragon. Thus, people either drop their hands or they fight without hope, that is, with half of their strength; because a fighter who thinks himself doomed is always weaker than one who believes in his victory. It is said that shortly before the revolution in Russia, a powerful government figure was shown the Protocols of Zion. Having looked through them, he said, “It’s too late! At this point we can do nothing!”  Who knows what turn history would have taken if, in Russia, only some government figures had not hidden their faces before the Jewish cabal, and others had not thought it was too late to fight it.

At the present time, a World War has broken out with a force never before known in history. It has broken out because the Jews hope to gain control over the whole world through it. Jews stand behind the Soviets, England, and America, and they hardly even conceal themselves now. For the peoples of Europe, it is becoming clearer that what is at stake is not the borders of one country or another, not the security of its international rights, etc., but the very existence of Christendom and Christian culture. A victory of the Judaic coalition, driven by Stalin, clearly threatens the whole world with the same slavery to which the Russian people are now subjected in the USSR.

And here the question arises: who will win in this titanic fight? Many are crushed by its scale. In the face of the horror threatening the whole world in the case that communism wins, people see only the strength of the enemy. They blink at the strikes of the enemy and do not see how its vulnerabilities are laid bare. The Judaeo-Communist peril is imagined by them to be an unconquerable hydra, and at every temporary success of the enemy, or even when he intends to advance, such people are seized with horror. They do not think about victory, but about when and where they will be executed. This is how honorable people think. But those who are meaner gauge how they can adapt to the expected Jewish rule.

Such sentiments, however, are the fruit not only of cowardice, but of bad calculations. Jews will not be the victors in a real war.

Jews are a very calculating people, but they have one pernicious mark: upon just barely reaching some sort of success, they are quickly emboldened, they get excited, and they reveal their true intentions too early. Because of this, they broke down more than once in history.

Any victory is usually based not on a material advantage in strength, but more on the greater strength of spirit. Jews, meanwhile, are by nature predominantly materialists and they underestimate other nations’ strength of spirit. They grew up believing that other nations are distinct from animals only in appearance, for which they handle them from top to bottom. Read the Protocols of Zion and you will see this condescending treatment of the Goyim. The author of this excellent work thinks that the Goyim are so stupid and incapable of conscious work that the whole plan is founded upon their stupidity. “Goyim are sheep, but we are wolves,” it says in the Protocols.

The plans of the Protocols of Zion have come true in many respects, especially in Russia.  Based on this, pessimists await their fulfillment in full force. They do not notice, however, that many prerequisites of the Protocols are failing.

The author of the Protocols assumed that democracy would be instated in all countries, creating a lot of murky water in which Jews may “catch fish” with particular success. He foresaw the uprising of one or two nations as a possible counteraction to his plan. After the European war of 1914–1918, the Jews could already consider themselves the victors. The world had been put on an inclined plane, down which it was rolling rather fast. It seemed that all that was left was some Masonic preparation, a few more economic crises, and one government after another, like ripe fruit, would fall into the basket of the future universal Jewish empire. Everything was calculated with perfect precision. However, the Jews could not expect that a person would appear who would change history. The National Socialistic upheaval, and then rebirth, not long before the already impending Bolshevization of Germany, did not at all fit into the plan framed by the Zionist sages. Despite all their wisdom, the Jewish chiefs were caught by surprise. They suffered one defeat which was followed by others.

Gathering their strength for the coming world war, the Jews built all their calculations on the meaning of gold. “All wheels of government mechanisms,” as it says in Protocol No. 5, “move by the power of an engine, which is in our hands, and this engine is gold.” Jews concentrated the lion’s share of the world’s gold in the basement of the Federal Reserve Bank of the U. S. A. They thought that, in this way, they could kill off the industrial life of any unruly government. However, the new economic system instated in Germany by the National Socialists showed that one could manage without gold. This was a colossal victory over Jewry, from whose hands the mightiest weapon was struck. Shortly after, the plans for blockading Europe also collapsed. Europe was not only not blockaded, but even better provided for, by working hands, than the states fighting on the side of the Jews.

When beginning the war, the Jews assumed that in the west, Germany would be held back by the Maginot Line and threatened by the Anglo-French army, and to the south, its strength would be focused on Yugoslavia and Greece. Then, from the East, it was supposed to be routed by the Soviet army. The Jews thought all the trump cards were in their hands. Actually, these cards were trumped. The Jews did not consider the spirit, nor the pristine armaments of the German army.

No matter how hard this war, Germany must not be beaten on the front. More than this, as concerns the overcoming of communist propaganda and different nations realizing how great the Judaeo-Communist danger is, they themselves are growing healthy nationalist forces, and we are the witnesses of an unusual sight in history, when conquered peoples are forming martial groups to help their conqueror. All the peoples of Europe understand even more so, that it is not a usual conflict between different governments, but a war of two cultures, or more precisely, a fight for the defence of culture against a universal enemy.

“Fine,” they will say to us, “we are ready to agree that Germany has thus far had obvious advantages over its enemies, but can it deal the final blow to its foe?” How do we know it cannot do this? Who knows what meaning the retribution against England – which we hear more and more about from the Germans, and which the English speak about with trepidation – will have? We do not know how it will be determined, what weaponry will be deployed against England, and if it will give her such a blow as will knock the British Isles out of order, at least as a base from which we can expect an attack on the shores of Europe.

Howbeit, England and America are in constant danger of internal dissolution. Jews are exploiters by nature; therefore, their power always carries the ferment of purification. The development of this ferment is already noticeable in the strikes that have been occurring in important factories for the armament of England and America. Jews are capitalists. While serving the purposes of their people, they never forget themselves, and in times of wartime crisis, they anger the populace with their miserliness and speculation.

A situation is occurring whereby the life of workers and those strata of the population who are not secured by big capital is becoming unbearable, especially coming in the wake of a life of security and comfort before the war. It is not surprising that one notices a rising tide of anti-Semitism in England and America.

The aforementioned displeasure of the populace, combined with the rapprochement with a communist government in the form of the USSR, creates great internal complications for the Allies. Vainly do the Jews outwardly try to blunt the edge of this danger by having the authorities in Soviet Russia spruce everything up with a more bourgeois appearance. The worm of class-revolution is tenacious, and once it has been bred, it is extremely hard to remove it without deep reforms. One wonderful day, the world may read with surprise about a revolution in England, a revolution that, like every revolution, would bring such turmoil into the life of the country that it would be opened up to an invasion that would be quite terrible for the English.

Every real English patriot, together with all this, feels an additional disturbance because of the growing significance of Great Britain’s true enemy, the U. S. A., at the expense of Britain’s former colonial holdings. England was never before in a position of such humiliation as she is in now, when both of her allies push her around as they wish. The authentic interests of all three members of the Judaic coalition are diametrically opposed. Their leaders have to find compromises at countless conferences, but they will never find a solution that could satisfy all parties. England must give way more that the rest. The collapse of her empire is now only a question of time.

America is also not safe from being shaken. The boldness of the Jews controlling it can easily bring about a reaction. One must not forget that in that country in particular, which was founded by Masons and brought up on Masonic yeast, at the beginning of the last century, one of their former members was murdered by a group of Masons, which sparked such an anti-Masonic movement as had not been seen in any other country before Hitler. An anti-Masonic party was formed, which carried a majority in the parliament. Jews, in their boldness, can easily spark in the American people an outrage that will be of decisive significance. One can judge the greatness of this boldness by the fact that the Jewish Anti-Defamation League once raised the question of changing the Gospel so that it does not say that Christ was crucified by the Jews…

Even the third and greatest power of the Jewish coalition in our times, the U.S.S.R., is not entirely secure. Soviet military strength is dissipated in endless, fruitless attempts to storm the German military front. Within the country, there are numerous unspecified problems of an economic nature. Advances are being made with waning strength. This strength could be exhausted any minute now.

Under the influence of military struggles, a big crisis is brewing in Soviet hands. The recent reforms speak to this. If they have begun to create orders, if they have begun giving orders named after historical Russian heroes, if they have begun to restore the Patriarchate, if they have begun to appoint chaplains — this is not only a masquerade for foreigners, but to a great degree, it is the result of the need to adapt to the mood of the Russian people. Such concessions from their program and slogans repeated over a quarter of a century are a sign of the great weakness of the Communist Party. Such events, though raising the Soviet’s readiness for war for a time, carry a great danger for the authorities in Moscow. The experiment with the Church is especially dangerous for them…

There is no need to prove that the restoration of the Patriarchate and the provision of certain rights to the church is predicated on craftiness. Stalin and Kaganovich are as Godless as before, and Patriarch Sergius and his collaborators are an obedient instrument of the Soviet regime, which they support through every means. Nevertheless, they somehow preach the Gospel, they show the outward beauty of the Church, they acquaint the people with the lives of Her Holy God-pleasers, and thus, even in the Sergian Church, people unwittingly listen to teaching which opposes communist teaching, and which is especially intriguing against the backdrop of Soviet activities. Upon being acquainted with the light of Christ’s teaching, many people will quickly feel a disgust toward communism, and a Church movement will emerge out of Sergianist loyalism. If merciless persecution could not kill the faith in the Russian people, then compromising politics in this sphere are even more doomed to failure. Faith is alive in Russia; this faith is growing, and sooner or later it will conquer Communism.

The play on national emotions is no less dangerous. This is a double-edged sword. If millions of Russian people are already taking part in some way or another, together with Germany, in the fight against Communism, then under certain political conditions, a national movement of a distinctly anti-Communist and anti-Semitic nature might arise, which would wipe communism off the face of the earth. In the face of such a movement, Russia would leave the ranks of Germany’s enemies.

Thus, having lost all their main trump cards before, or during the first years of real war, Jewry has very few chances to win. They try to use so-called psychological warfare against the German people through bombardment. The German people take these hits so manfully, however, that now it is plain to everyone that [the Jews] are insufficient to conquer them.

The Jewish plans are falling apart. The Jews have started a difficult war for the whole world, which requires every ounce of strength. They rushed, yet again, as they did on more than one occasion throughout history, by starting it in an adverse situation for themselves, because they underestimated the strength of their enemy and revealed their true goals too early. The results will be detrimental to the Jews. On the other hand, the Christian world, having conquered Judaeo-Communism, will have received immunity for a long time against such illnesses.

The great Russian writer and visionary Dostoevsky foretold the temporary enslavement of Russia by the Jews. He also foresaw, however, a release from this enslavement. The first half of the prophesy has been fulfilled. Now the time has come for the second half of it to come about. The victory over Jewry is impending.


1 ROCOR Studies. URL:
2 cf.: Mikhail Shkarovskii. “The Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia and the Holocaust.” ROCOR Studies. URL:
3 Boris Ravdin. “Predvaritelʹnyi spisok russkoi religioznoi literatury, izdannoi na okkupirovannykh territoriiakh SSSR, v Germanii i nekotorykh sopredelʹnykh evropeiskikh stranakh v 1941–1945 godakh” [“A Preliminary List of Russian Religious Literature Published in the Occupied Territories of the USSR, Germany, and Several Adjacent European Countries from 1941–1945”]. Vienna Slavic Yearbook, 2014, p. 303.
4 Michael Kellogg. The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. p. 77.
5 “‘People Often Do Not Talk About What’s Important, but Rather about Their Grievances and Frustrations’”. ROCOR Studies. URL: <> (accessed June 13, 2023).
6 The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime, 1917–1982. Crestwood, NY, 1984.
7 Novoe slovo [New Word]. No. 27 (356). June 29, 1941. Berlin. Quoted in: Bp. Grigorii [Gregory] Grabbe. K istorii russkikh tserkovnykh razdelenii zagranitsei [On the History of the Divisions of the Russian Church Abroad]. Jordanville, 1992. pp. 67–68.
8 Apart from the present brochure, another one is known: Pod šestokrakom zvezdom: judaizam i slobodno-zidarstvo u prošlosti i sadašnjosti. Belgrade in 1943 by Dimitrije Ljotić. Source: The Russian Orthodox Autonomous Church: American Diocese. URL: – ПОД ШЕСТОКРАКОМ ЗВЕЗДОМ.pdf (accessed June 1, 2023)


  • Bravo, Father Protodeacon Andrei, for your bravery in publishing this tract, for holding up this mirror for us reflect on history of the ROCOR, to look through this glass darkly with perhaps the promise to someday see the truth of ourselves “face to face.”

  • The Protocols of the Elders of Zion was published by S.A. Nilus, who also published at the same time the conversation with St Seraphim of Sarov.

    In addition, the God-bearing Father Athanasios Mitilinaios frequently identifies Zionism in the same way (and St Paisios, and Blessed Philotheos Zervakos, Elder Justin Parvu, and many many many more). He says, these “rulers” of the age deserve many, many tears – for God will laugh at them, and smash them with a rod of iron (chapter on Pergamos The Throne of Satan, Revelation from Zoe Press). The contemporary Saints, agree, the nations that rise against Christ, are those that will all serve Zionism – which is Jewish.

    St Nikolai the Chrysostom of Serbia, was in Dachau – from what we can see, there was not millions on millions on millions of Jews executed – this was only brought up in the 1960’s, during the same Talmudic-“cultural” revolution that occurred in the US which subsequently spread and was enforced under the hegemony of the United States’ godless materialism – which leads to nihilism, then degeneracy, and now we are ruled by pedophiles.

    The Jewish mythos isn’t real – it used to be 15 million, then 12 million, now 6 million, when all evidence before the 1960’s sourced Soviet propoganda, changed it from .4 – 1.4 million.

    General Eisenhower, Sir Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle – from 1948 – 1949, in three huge tomes on World War II, never once mentioned a single instance of the Jews Holocaust story.

    However, St Nikolai did rightfully see the pride of the European man opening themselves up to following whatever Jews put forward (“A Saint Speaks to Europe from Dachau”, wherein St Nikolai rightfully points out fallen Europe, rejecting Christ again and again, is WORSE then pagans, WORSE then the godless Jews).

    Listen to the protocols:

    DESTRUCTIVE EDUCATION: 3. Do not suppose for a moment that these statements are empty words: think carefully of the successes we arranged for Darwinism, Marxism, Nietzsche-ism. To us Jews, at any rate, it should be plain to see what a disintegrating importance these directives have had upon the minds of the GOYIM.

    Yet the Saints, do not ever hate the individuals themselves – thats what sinful men like me do – the Saints have tears, and sobs for these deluded “rulers” who will be “smashed like clay.”

    Fr Seraphim Rose discusses the super-intelligence and demonized energy of the Protocols document, and its likely factual nature.

    Fr Seraphim Rose is a Saint. Fr Athanasios, is a Saint. St Nikolai, is a Saint. St Valeriu of the Romanian prisons, is a Saint.

    This isn’t a “dark mirror” – the “original sin of antisemeticism” does not exist. Jews in Israel would be the worst offenders, with their genocide of Palestinians, and especially the genocide of the Christians and Orthodox, from 25% of all Palestine, to today, 2%. This is 20% of the entire population of Christians in Palestine gone. Where did they go?

    The Jews are not cursed from birth – they have choices to make, like everyone does – we have free will – read the Holy Fathers commentary on “His blood be upon us!” If they choose, they choose to take that curse, and unfortunately so many seem to.

    Met. Philaret of NY, blessed memory, discusses how cowardly it is to be afraid of offending ecumenists and Jews rather then God “Yet even this is not the worse thing, for the Jews have long been in opposition to God, and their detractions against our Savior and His Blameless Mother are nothing new; no, the worst thing is that when he said this, ALL kept silent! The “orthodox” priest who heard this blasphemy was later asked how could he have kept quiet. And he answered: “I didn’t want to offend the Jew.” One may not offend a Jew, you see, but to offend the All-pure Mother of God; this is permitted! How deeply we have fallen! How lacking are we in zeal! This priest should have raised himself up to full stature to stop the mouth of the blasphemer as did St. Nicholas.

    St. John Chrysostom preached: “If you are afraid to confront a heretic, tell me and I shall go to stop his mouth.” But we, alas, have become “shamefully indifferent to both good and evil” as the poet has written. And from this indifference and this self-care does “Ecumenism” reap the fruits of apostasy…”
    (from Saint Nicholas, Defender of Faith my Saint Philaret, Metropolitan of New York)

    We are under the yoke of the Talmud, the Judeo-Bolshevik yoke – and thank God, its starting to be more and more blatant so we can stop pretending America is some “free” and supposedly “Christian” country, and is instead the land of ruling pedophiles, and transgenders and complete degeneracy; the fruits of anemic, weak false-Christianity (St Valeriu, Saint of the Prisons).

    And yet most Orthodox are silent on this matter, leaving the vacuum open for the third-reich proponents! Ridiculous. Read our contemporary Saints, this isn’t difficult.

    This article shows the righteous hatred of the disgusting Soviet yoke, and desired Germany to rid itself of such, and the roots of Communism – which were Jewish. This is historical and factual. Of course it went too far, whereas Ivan Illych has a good critique of Fascism which can be found online.

    Nor can Hitler ever be said to have been a Christian. This nonsense gets people into the devils traps because the Orthodox, who have the truth, refuse to speak up. Refuse to rely on the contemporary Saints, refuse to have courage and denounce the ruling authorities – whether they are Masons, or Kabbalists, or Satanists. Met. Neophytos, Fr Savvas Agiorities has named the Rothschilds before – and stated, we should name them. The evil is self destruction, but call out these rulers of the age.

    Yet, Germany destroyed its people, murdered millions of Orthodox Christians, and its country is basically dead. Nothing is more lame and disgusting and dissapointing then Russian communists, Stalinists, and Serbian and Greek Fascists. As if we have no warrior Saints, or contemporary Saints who speak of defending our neighbors and homelands.

    So the third-reich was evil, and the Soviets were evil, does not make the Jews an idol who can’t be spoken of. Read Haartz and the Forward – two Jewish magazines that continually highlight and brag about: abortion, antichristian lawsuit warfare, the ownership of media, the Biden administration, pornography, the Jewish “right” to transgenderism, and on and on and on.

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